Particle Trade

Particle is a platform that hosts restaking protocols, facilitating permissionless leverage trading and interest rate swaps with its Leverage (LAMM). [1]


Particle’s LAMM is a permissionless protocol designed for trading tokens with leverage, akin to how popularized for trading any token. It ensures earn higher yields without increased s compared to traditional like . supplied to LAMM initially supports swapping in the . When borrowed for leverage trading, this continues earning yields as if still used for swapping and a position fee through restaking. Borrowed remains locked for up to 3 days before reclaiming. [2]

LAMM operates without relying on price , guaranteeing positions are mathematically made whole with each leverage position. This eliminates risks associated with price manipulation. Unlike protocols with price-based liquidation mechanisms, LAMM employs a premium model akin to fixed-term borrowing, reducing the likelihood of liquidation even during adverse price movements. Furthermore, LAMM minimizes counterparty risk by deriving profit and loss directly from the underlying asset's price movements, ensuring potential positive returns even in volatile market conditions. [2]


Open Positions

Leverage trading on LAMM allows traders to go long or short on tokens using their paired tokens, contingent upon available . The level of leverage is constrained by the depth of for each token pair. Opening a leverage position requires payment of and premium. Collateral represents the maximum potential loss if the price moves unfavorably. Premium covers interest accrual, with any excess refunded upon position closure. [3]

Each leverage position incurs three fees: an open swap fee, an open position fee, and a close swap fee. These fees compensate from the underlying and are deducted from the , factored into the profit and loss calculation. The premium, equivalent to 2% of the , is paid upfront, with interest accruing based on the swapping activities of the underlying . The front end displays an hourly borrowing rate reflecting this interest accrual. Liquidation occurs when the interest accrued exceeds the premium. [3]

Close Positions

The front end provides a simulated Profit and Loss (PnL) calculation based on factors like entry price, current price, leverage ratio, accrued interest, and fees. However, the realized PnL at position closing may slightly differ due to price impacts, which are protected against . [4]

Because of the mathematical nature of , accurately tracking the resulting price point after a swap can be challenging. Therefore, when a position is closed, a small residual amount of the position token might be left (e.g., if the trader used to long ). This residual is returned to the trader's wallet upon position closing. Subsequently, the trader can convert it back into the source token. [4]


The LAMM protocol operates on a premium model akin to fixed-term borrowing. Liquidation occurs if the interest accrued on a position exceeds the upfront premium or the position reaches the 3-day mark after reclaiming by the . Until these conditions are met, positions remain unaffected by adverse token price movements. [5]

Interest accrual rates align with the underlying . The front end provides a liquidation page listing all liquidatable or imminent positions. Anyone can act as a liquidator for any such position, receiving a 5% reward on the position's premium. [5]

Following liquidation, the retrieves the borrowed and swapping fees accumulated during the borrowing period. The borrower receives the realized Profit and Loss (PnL) at the price of the liquidation event, adjusted by subtracting the liquidation reward. [5]

Duo Exchange

Duo Exchange is a yield-swapping protocol where can enhance their airdrop points or yield. A central Vault contract consolidates liquidity from all and directs points or yield based on each chosen preferences. For each deposit of native , , or USDB into Duo Exchange, an equivalent amount of Duo Restaking Tokens (DRTs) such as DETH or DUSD is minted. These DRTs can be utilized in various protocols, such as serving as collateral in lending platforms, currency swaps, or leverage trading activities. Upon withdrawal, must ensure an equivalent amount of DRTs is available in their wallet to redeem the original principal at a 1:1 ratio. [6][7]

Point-Yield Swap

Point-Yield Swap on Duo Exchange lets choose between boosted points or boosted yield. Both flows are accommodated within a single vault contract. There are two types of provision in the vault: and . provides liquidity to receive boosted points while foregoing the yield, whereas provides liquidity to receive boosted yield while foregoing the points. [8]

enjoys a higher point rate because both 's and 's principals generate points specifically for . Conversely, receives a higher yield rate because both 's and 's principals generate yield specifically for . [8]

Variable-Fixed Yield Swap

The Variable-Fixed Yield Swap on Duo Exchange allows LPs to choose between a fixed-rate yield until maturity and a variable, potentially higher yield than the yield source. Both options are housed within a single Vault contract, accommodating both liquidity flows. [9]

  • Liquidity Flow: The vault on Duo Exchange facilitates two methods of provision: and . locks liquidity to earn a fixed yield rate until maturity, while opts for a variable rate, often surpassing the source rate over time. benefits from potentially higher rates because locks in at a lower, fixed rate from the source. Any excess yield earned by is directed into . Moreover, opening an position incurs a position fee paid to . [9]
  • Fixed Rate Yield: In an environment with fluctuating yields, locking in a specific yield upfront becomes advantageous. The rate available for locking is determined by market conditions, enabling to effectively purchase an asset at a discount and gain full access to it at maturity. can exit before maturity, albeit without receiving the full yield. The vault handles Any unmatured portion, with the remaining yield distributed among all . [9]
  • Variable Rate Yield: benefits from variable yields that trend higher over time than the yield source. This advantage arises because both and contribute to generating yields. locks in a smaller portion of the total yield pie (choosing a lower yield than the instantaneous estimate), leaving more yield for . Additionally, earns a position fee from . retains the flexibility to exit at any time and receives a yield and position fee proportionate to its principal sum relative to the total principal sum over time. [9]

PTC Token

$PTC is the native token that governs and powers Particle's current and upcoming protocols. It has a maximum supply of 200,000,000 tokens and has the following allocation: [10]

  • Community: 55%
  • Investors: 24%
  • Contributors: 21%



In January 2024, Particle raised a seed round led by to facilitate permissionless leverage trading. Investors such as Nascent, Inflection, Neon DAO, Naveen Jain, , DCF God, , Kalos, Richard Ma, , vxCozy, and numerous other partners supported the journey. [11]wiki


On January 17th, 2024, Particle Labs announced that Particle would be built on the and participating in Big Bang Competition to win a developer that would go to their community fund.

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Particle Trade

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July 11, 2024


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