Fiat Money or fiat currency is a government-issued currency that is not backed by a physical commodity, such as gold or silver, but rather by the government that issued it. It is declared money by decree and not by the marketplace.
Ancient China (7th-11th Century): The earliest recorded use of fiat money dates back to China during the Tang Dynasty. The Chinese government issued jiaozi, a form of paper money that was not backed by a commodity like gold or silver but was instead accepted as legal tender due to government decree.
Mongol Empire (13th Century): The Mongol Empire under Kublai Khan introduced one of the most well-known early forms of fiat money called the "chao." This fiat currency was initially backed by silver, but later, the link to precious metals was severed, and it became fully fiat.
Medieval Europe (14th Century): During the Middle Ages, some European cities and regions began experimenting with promissory notes and bills of exchange as a form of fiat money. These early notes were essentially promises to pay a certain amount of precious metal but functioned as an early form of paper currency.
Bank of England (17th Century): The Bank of England, established in 1694, issued banknotes that were initially convertible into a fixed amount of gold or silver. Over time, these notes became widely accepted as a form of fiat money.
American Revolution (18th Century): The American colonies issued their own fiat currency during the American Revolution. These "continentals" were not backed by any physical assets and suffered from significant inflation.
Napoleon's France (19th Century): Napoleon's government issued the "assignat" as a form of fiat money during the late 18th century. These notes, not backed by assets, played a role in the French financial crisis.
Gold Standard (19th Century): In the 19th century, many countries adopted the gold standard, where their paper currency was directly convertible into a fixed amount of gold. This provided stability to fiat money, as the supply of money was tied to the availability of gold.
Bretton Woods Agreement (1944): After World War II, the Bretton Woods Agreement established a fixed exchange rate system with the U.S. Dollar as the world's primary reserve currency, convertible into gold. Other major currencies were pegged to the dollar.
End of the Gold Standard (1971): In 1971, President Richard Nixon ended the US Dollar's convertibility into gold, effectively ending the Bretton Woods system. This marked a significant shift toward fully fiat currencies worldwide.
Digital Era (Late 20th Century): The late 20th century witnessed the widespread adoption of digital forms of fiat money. Most transactions became electronic, with physical cash decreasing in relative importance.
Today, nearly all national currencies are fiat currencies, not backed by physical assets. Central banks control the supply and value of these currencies, and they use monetary policy tools to manage economies.
Fiat money is a currency that lacks intrinsic value and is established as a legal tender by government regulation. Its value is based on the creditworthiness of the issuing government, and it derives its worth primarily from the public's trust in the issuers. The US dollar and the euro are examples of fiat or traditional currencies. Fiat money is subject to inflation and the Governments can print more fiat money at any time, which can devalue the currency. Nowadays, the term "fiat currency" is commonly used to distinguish regular money from cryptocurrency. 
Fiat Money vs Cryptocurrency
Fiat money is a legal tender with its value connected to government issued currency like the U.S. dollar or British pound. The value of cryptocurrencies isn’t tied to a government. Cryptocurrency gets their value from their native blockchain, and is governed and issued by communities, blockchain protocols and code. Cryptocurrencies derive their value from various sources. For example, the value of cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin relies on their limited supply and market demand. While some view volatility as a significant drawback, others capitalize on it to amass wealth rapidly—much faster than what would have been achievable with fiat currency. Fiat money is relatively stable. The stability allows regulators and governments to navigate the economy against recession and inflation. Although crypto stablecoins offer price stability through reserves, providing options for a range of risk appetites.
The emergence of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency over the last decade presents a foundational update to the systems of money. Although, cryptocurrency is highly volatile with limited acceptances and difficult to recover if lost or stolen, it is decentralized and can also be used to make international payments quickly and cheaply. Fiat money is also used as a means of storing value and facilitating exchange. Its greater control allows central banks to manage liquidity, interest rates and credit supply.  Fiat money continues to be the predominant means of global exchange while the use of cryptocurrency is gaining momentum. Numerous nations have begun exploring the potential of issuing central bank digital currencies (CBDC) and some, like El Salvador, have even embraced bitcoin as legal tender.
Central Bank Digital Currency
Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) is a digital form of government-issued currency that is not pegged to a physical commodity. It is a digital form of a country's fiat currency issued by the central bank. CBDC is centralized and only available in electronic form. CBDCs are designed to provide the benefits of digital currencies while still maintaining the stability and trust associated with traditional fiat currencies. CBDCs are typically implemented using blockchain or distributed ledger technology. They can be used for various purposes, including improving financial inclusion, reducing transaction costs, and enhancing the efficiency of monetary policy.
Hyperinflation in Fiat Money
Hyperinflation in a fiat money occurs when a country experiences an extremely rapid and typically uncontrollable increase in the prices of goods and services. This results in the devaluation of the national currency to the point where it becomes nearly worthless, and people lose confidence in it. 
The value of fiat money is based largely on public faith in the issuer and does not have intrinsic value. Changes in public confidence in a government issuing fiat money may be enough to make the fiat currency worthless. The relationship between supply and demand and the stability of the issuing government affects fiat money.
Hyperinflation can be triggered by various factors, including excessive money supply growth, political Instability, economic mismanagement etc. Hyperinflation erodes people's purchasing power, creates economic uncertainty, social and political unrest. and can create the use of alternative, more stable currencies for transactions. 
Some well-known historical examples of hyperinflation include:
- Weimar Republic, Germany (1920s): Germany experienced one of the most famous hyperinflation episodes when the value of the German Mark collapsed, leading to skyrocketing prices for everyday goods.
- Zimbabwe (late 2000s): Zimbabwe suffered a severe hyperinflation crisis, with prices doubling every few hours. The Zimbabwean dollar became worthless, and the country adopted foreign currencies for transactions.
- Venezuela (2010s): In recent years, Venezuela experienced hyperinflation due to economic mismanagement and political instability. Prices soared, and the national currency, the Bolívar, lost value rapidly.
Fiat currency, while widely utilized for transactions, faces notable limitations. Its value hinges on trust in issuing governments and economies, making it vulnerable to sudden fluctuations in perception. Governments can manipulate its value, potentially leading to inflation or devaluation, while its lack of intrinsic worth renders it dependent on societal consensus. Moreover, the centralized control by authorities raises concerns about privacy, and its accessibility is contingent on traditional banking systems. Fiat currency's susceptibility to counterfeiting, susceptibility to financial crises, and dependency on stable governance underscore its intrinsic vulnerabilities in a rapidly evolving financial landscape.
One of the biggest challenges facing fiat currency is the rise of cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are secured by cryptography, which makes them difficult to counterfeit. Cryptocurrencies also offer a number of advantages over fiat currencies, such as the ability to make payments anonymously and the potential for lower transaction fees. 
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