Starknet is a permissionless Validity-Rollup () network that operates on top of , enabling (dApps) to scale without compromising on security. [1][2]


The Starknet Validity-Rollup operates as a Layer 2 (L2) , enabling any dApp to achieve massive computation scale without compromising composability and security. [1][3]

Starknet aims to achieve secure low-cost transactions and high performance by using the STARK cryptographic proof system. Starknet contracts and the Starknet OS are written in Cairo, a custom-built and specialized programming language. [3]

Starknet was developed by StarkWare Industries, an Israel-based firm, to scale Ethereum. Starknet launched fully in February 2022 as a permissionless Layer 2 network, allowing anyone to build decentralized applications or dApps on it. It was co-founded by who is also the president of StarkWare and Chairman of its Board of Directors. [15]

The development and adoption of Starknet is driven by the Starknet Foundation led by the CEO, Diego Oliva[5]. [6]


How Starknet Scales Ethereum

To address scalability challenge while maintaining security and decentralization, Starknet introduces the Validity Rollup solution. This approach shifts transaction processing off the Ethereum Mainnet, grouping transactions into off-chain blocks summarized into a single onchain transaction. [4]

To ensure transaction integrity without re-execution, Starknet utilizes STARK proofs for verifiable computation. These proofs are transmitted to Ethereum along with essential block information for efficient verification, allowing Starknet to achieve significant scalability without compromising security or decentralization. [4]

The Starknet Sequencer

Starknet's foundational element, the Starknet Sequencer, plays a crucial role in transaction validation and execution and block proposal. Sequencers group transactions and process them collectively, flagging unsuccessful transactions while allowing successful ones to proceed into a block. Starknet’s sequencers can handle substantially more transactions per second than Ethereum nodes. [4]

The Starknet Prover

The Prover ensures the mathematical validity of block transactions by generating a STARK proof, ensuring their integrity. Transactions are processed in groups concurrently, with the Prover documenting each step in transaction execution to create an Execution Trace. Changes in the system's state termed the State Diff, are also tracked. [4]

Next, an algorithm expands and mixes data from the Execution Trace, highlighting any issues as even a single instance of bad data affects the entire dataset. The Prover then selects random samples from this expanded data to create a STARK proof, which validates thousands of transactions. [4]

Secure Settlement on Ethereum

The STARK proof and State Diff are transmitted to Ethereum as a transaction, where an Ethereum node accepts the transactions and unpacks the proof and the State Diff. These unpacked components are processed by two Ethereum smart contracts: the Verifier and Starknet Core. [4]

The Verifier contract breaks down the proof and analyzes samples within it. Any hint of problematic data in the samples of the proof leads to prompt rejection by the Verifier. Once the proof's validity is confirmed, it advances to the Starknet Core [4]

The Core contract verifies the proof's authenticity and confirms receiving the State Diff, subsequently updating the Starknet state on the . This updated state is then added to an Ethereum block, distributed across the node network for validation and voting. When the block accumulates sufficient votes, it achieves "finalized" status, confirming its place as an immutable part of Ethereum. [4]

STRK Token

The Starknet token ($STRK) is used for paying fees to enable the operation of the network, maintaining and securing the network by enabling for consensus and deciding on Starknet’s values and technology goals by voting for governance proposals. [16]

The STRK token is used for transaction fees originally paid in , for staking, and for governance. It became available for claiming on the Starknet Mainnet on February 20th, 2024. [16]


Ten billion Starknet tokens were initially created by StarkWare in May 2022 and minted onchain on November 30, 2022. [16]

The existing ten billion tokens were planned to be distributed according to the following: 20.04% allocated to early contributors, 18.17% to Investors, 10.76% to StarkWare, 12.93% for Grants including Development Partners (aka DPs), 9.00% for Community Provisions, 9.00% for Community Rebates, 10.00% for the Foundation Strategic Reserves, 8.10% for Foundation Treasury, and 2.00% for Donations. [16]

The Starknet Foundation

Introduced in November 2022, the foundation was set up to fulfill the vision of Starknet’s decentralization proposal. The Foundation launched with 50.1% of the initial Token supply to ensure the network’s resources are effectively deployed towards the following goals: the maintenance and security of Starknet as a public good; the continued development and expansion of the network; and support for a culture of constructive collaboration between developers. [7]

The foundation's priorities include fostering the community of Starknet users, developers, and researchers, expanding the community by educating about Starknet and its technology, overseeing the continued development of the network and advancing research, and finally, furthering Starknet’s decentralization by developing Starknet governance mechanisms, and instituting decentralized sequencing and proving. [7]

The Starknet Foundation board comprises 7 board members: Andrew McLaughlin[8], [9], Eric Wall[10], Heather Meeker[11], Prof. Shubhangi Saraf[12], Tomasz Stańczak[13], and [14]. [7]

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April 19, 2024

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added founders


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