Fantom is a platform that enables the development of crypto DApps and utilizes DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph), a data modeling and structuring technology that represents crypto transactions with vertices and edges. Unlike blockchains, which use blocks, DAG networks are comprised of vertices and edges stacked on top of each other. This design allows for highly scalable, decentralized, and permissionless transactions on the Fantom platform. 
The OPERA chain - Fantom's mainnet is designed to process real-time transaction information as well as "Story data" in a distributed environment. The “Story root” is stored in event data in order to record detailed historical information. The OPERA chain will use a high-level Scalar-based functional programming language that compiles to smart contract bytecode.
The OPERA chain consists of three layers:
- The Core Layer processes transactions at scale and is intended to process 300,000 transactions per second.
- The OPERA Ware Layer supports smart contracts and other functionality.
- The OPERA application layer provides support for third-party applications.
Lachesis Consensus Mechanism
The Lachesis protocol is the core consensus layer that secures the Fantom network by providing both transaction speed and security. Lachesis is an aBFT consensus engine that uses a directed acyclic graph (DAG) algorithm. 
Network data can be processed at different times, and the network filters the participants, allowing only one-third, which are allocated due to erroneous or malicious behavior, without compromising network processes. 
Fantom's Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerant (aBFT) Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism maintains the efficiency of the entire network, its design provides security at maximum speed. Fantom developers emphasize that the PoS mechanism is a leaderless phenomenon — there are no leaders of blocks and participants, and anyone can join (or leave) the network of nodes at a convenient moment. 
The key qualities of Lachesis are: asynchronous, leaderless, Byzantine fault-tolerant, and near-instant finality. 
A user can cast a vote via the Fantom fWallet in order to vote on a proposal. Users will need to stake FTM tokens in order to vote where each token equals one vote.
When a vote is delegated to a validator, the voting power is still equal to the number of FTM tokens you’ve staked. However, if a user chooses not to vote on a proposal, voting power is given to the validator. This increases overall participation and prevents low voting turnouts. 
Staking on Fantom
Fantom utilizes a Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithm to validate transactions and ensure network security. Users can participate in this process by staking their FTM tokens and earning rewards in return. Staking does not require any dedicated hardware and can be done directly from a user's phone or PC. While staking involves locking up tokens, they remain accessible only to the owner and can be unlocked at any time. 
- Minimum amount: 1 FTM
- Minimum lock-up period: 0 days, earning the base reward rate
- Maximum lock-up period: 365 days, earning the maximum reward rate
- Unbonding time (time between unstaking and funds becoming available): 7 days
- Delegation fee: The network has set a fixed fee of 15% on staking rewards paid from stakers to validators for running their nodes. 
Fantom also implements a feature known as Liquid Staking that enables stakers to mint sFTM tokens at a 1:1 ratio to their staked FTM tokens. These sFTM tokens can be used as collateral in Fantom Finance, a suite of DeFi applications offered by Fantom. This feature enables users to potentially increase the utility of their staked FTM tokens. 
Some of the DeFi offerings that Fantom provides include:
- fUSD: a Fantom-based stablecoin pegged to the U.S. dollar
- fSwap: a synthetic asset decentralized trading platform
- fLend: a liquidity pool from which users can lend or borrow 
FTM is the native utility PoS token used within the Fantom ecosystem for various functions such as payments, network fees, staking, and governance. It serves as the backbone for transactions and enables fee collection, staking, and user rewards. 
The initial token launch date for FTM was on the 15th of June 2018. The maximum supply of this token is capped at 3,175,000,000, with an inflationary type emission rate since genesis. The supply of FTM is expected to be fully vested on 31 December 2025. 
Funding Rounds for FTM
- $2.0M was raised in the Public Sale on Jun 2018, with an average price of $0.04
- $12.9M was raised in the Private Sale 2 on May 2018, with an average price of $0.035
- $24.8M was raised in the Private Sale 1 on May 2018, with an average price of $0.031
- $1.6M was raised in the Seed Round on Feb 2018, with an average price of $0.016 
Fantom Safe is an open-source smart contract wallet running on the Fantom network, enabling the multi-signature of crypto assets or interactions with other smart contracts. Therefore, it is suitable for managing funds in teams. Owners of the safe and a minimum number of people to approve a transaction can be stated before it can execute. This is different from a single key wallet, often referred to as an externally owned account (EOA), where a single person owns the private key and approves transactions with it.
Fantom x Chainlink
On May 20, 2021, Fantom announced a partnership with Chainlink so that Fantom developers will be able to leverage Chainlink Verifiable Random Function (VRF) to create high-throughput and low-cost gaming, NFT, and DeFi products that are augmented by randomness, such as unpredictable in-game scenarios, fair distribution of limited-edition financial assets, or random assignment of rare NFTs attributes. 
"Fantom continues to attract world-class developers building next-generation decentralized smart contract applications. Consequently, we wanted to scale up our infrastructure to include more secure and expansive tooling that enables new use cases and opportunities for developers,” stated Michael Kong, CEO of Fantom. 
Fantom x Band Protocol
Fantom partnered with Band Protocol in March 2020 to bring decentralized oracles onto DeFi and government projects. Band oracles are also live on Opera mainnet, providing critical data feeds for stablecoin minting, lending/borrowing, and trading of synthetic assets on Fantom Finance. 
“Oracle services such as Band Protocol are critical for establishing secure, decentralised data feeds that can be used confidently by developers to build high-performing dAPPs. It has been fantastic working with Band Protocol to provide these tools to the community” - Michael Kong, CTO of Fantom
Fantom x The Graph
Fantom's partnership with The Graph which was announced in February 2021 will enable querying of data across several blockchains, which Fantom developers can access and build with, as well as cross-swap between Ethereum. The partnership also allows Fantom developers to be eligible for The Graph Foundation grants. 
Fantom x Covalent
On March 23, 2021, Covalent and Fantom entered into a technical partnership to integrate Covalent indexing solution on Fantom. Covalent provides standard API and its indexing solution allows developers to pull Fantom blockchain data seamlessly, including Token balances per address, Historical transactions per address, Historical prices by address and ticker symbol, and Decoded log events. 
"We’re excited to provide builders with the tools necessary to build applications that work in a multi-chain setting. Wallets, aggregators, and many others are using Covalent to support new chains such as Fantom, opening the gates to the next wave of users.” – Michael Kong, Fantom CEO
Fantom x Ankr
On July 5, 2021, Fantom announced that Ankr had expanded its API services to Fantom. Using Ankr’s API endpoints, developers can seamlessly connect to the Fantom network and deploy dApps without configuring and maintaining a read-only node themselves. Since Ankr allocates node computing power on demand, the allowable number of requests per second is virtually uncapped. Requests per day determine costs, so developers only pay for consumed bandwidth.
“We are excited to work with Ankr, as their API service gives developers an excellent option for building in the Fantom ecosystem. We’ve seen over 12,000 smart contracts deployed on the network so far this year, and as more projects discover how fast, inexpensive, and secure Fantom is, Ankr’s APIs will play a valuable role in helping builders quickly on-board and connect to the blockchain.”– Michael Kong, Fantom CEO
Fantom x API3
In December 2020, Fantom partnered with API3 to build decentrally governed and quantifiably secure data feeds that power Web 3 applications without employing third-party intermediaries. The API3 DAO will build and provide Airnode compatibility with Fantom’s Opera Network for expanded use in decentralized applications. 
"We’re incredibly excited to collaborate with the API3 DAO in creating Airnode compatibility with Fantom’s Opera Network, as it allows API providers to host Opera-native first-party oracles that developers can use in their decentralized applications. From an ecosystem developer perspective, it’s also a great addition to the existing array of oracle options on top of Opera, as dAPI’s give us access to data that is aggregated right from the source."
-Michael Kong, CEO/CIO Fantom Foundation
Fantom x Chainbase
Fantom partnered with Chainbase which supports data centers across multiple blockchain networks. By using Chainbase, developers can discover, use open APIs, and support rapid customization of enterprise-level API services using SQL. 
Fantom x Poloniex
Poloniex, a global cryptocurrency exchange, announced in March 2022 that it entered into a strategic collaboration with the Fantom Foundation in order to support the development of its ecosystem. Poloniex aims to pour more resources into quality projects that are built on Fantom, which includes providing listing and promotion support, hosting exclusive campaigns, and sharing technical knowledge. 
“I am excited to see Poloniex become a key player in our ecosystem, and I believe their support will inspire more innovative projects,” said Michael Kong, CEO of Fantom. “We also welcome more projects to join, and I believe they will find Fantom is a fast, low-cost, and secure smart platform that Ethereum developers can easily deploy on.”
Fantom Ecosystem Vault
Launched on Fantom on January 19, 2023, the Ecosystem Vault is aimed at empowering builders on Fantom by offering a decentralized avenue for funding projects, ideas, and creations through a community-driven decision process. The Ecosystem Vault is financed by 10% of the transaction fees on Fantom and controlled by the community. The initiative was made possible by decreasing the burn rate of FTM and redirecting the resulting 10% to the Vault. The Vault represents a valuable opportunity for projects to secure funding in their efforts to build innovative dApps on Fantom. 
Gitcoin Grants Program
Fantom partnered with Gitcoin to allocate FTM through its Gitcoin Grants program to support projects building on the Fantom platform. The program is a matching funding initiative and matches donations made by community members to participating projects in grant rounds, during which users donate FTM to their favorite projects. The Gitcoin Grants program matches the donations to these projects. 
The Gitcoin Grants program is designed to promote a more diverse and dynamic ecosystem of projects on the Fantom platform across all verticals. 
Fantom's Gas Monetization program provides high-quality dApps with a sustainable income, retains talented creators, and supports network infrastructure. The program offers dApps a 15% share of the gas fees they generate. The reward is made possible by a decrease in the burn rate of FTM from 20% to 5%, which leaves the gas fees paid to validators unchanged. With Gas Monetization, Fantom seeks to foster a thriving ecosystem for builders, similar to the ad revenue model on traditional web platforms. 
In Web2, creators are rewarded through a share of the ad revenue their content generates. Fantom aims to bring the same model to Web3 by allowing dApps to earn a share of the gas fees their applications generate, which is related directly to the amount of traffic they bring to the platform. 
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