Synthetix is a derivatives liquidity protocol built on , facilitating the creation and trading of synthetic decentralized assets. The platform was founded in 2017 by and has experienced notable growth, establishing itself as one of the prominent platforms within the (DeFi) ecosystem. [1]

Synthetic assets, referred to as Synths, are tokens designed to mirror the price movements of external assets. [1]


Synthetix launched in late 2017, originally under the name of Havven. The company was founded by , who is based in Sydney, Australia. These synthetic assets are collateralized by the Synthetix Network Token (SNX), which allows the issuance of synthetic assets (Synths) when locked into the .[2]

On November 12, 2020, Synthetix began to offer users the ability to trade Brent Crude Futures Contracts on its platform. This was achieved by pulling syndicated data from the Intercontinental Exchange (through  for an undisclosed amount) and feeding the data through the new Synthetic Oil token (ticker symbol sOIL).[5][6] There is also a short crude oil future listing on the platform with the ticker symbol $iOIL, as $sOIL is for long crude oil futures. [7[8]

On November 30, 2020, Melon (MLN) announced that it would be supporting Synths on its protocol after the Melon Council approved this decision.[9] Assets such as synthetic fiat currencies, synthetic commodities, synthetic main cryptocurrencies, and various other assets that are on the Synthetix platform are to be supported on the protocol.[10] While not readily available, both firms and communities of the firms will be working together to promote the use of Synths on Melon's platform. [11]


Synths are tokens that provide access within the  blockchain to assets such as gold, , U.S. dollars, TESLA, and AAPL. Synthetix protocol's aim is to enable a variety of trading features including binary options, futures, and more. [3][4]

Synths are able to track the underlying asset price and they allow holders to gain exposure to different asset classes on Ethereum without having to hold the underlying assets themselves or trust a custodian. Synths are supported by the Synthetix Network Token (SNX), which is staked at a ratio of 750% as collateral. [1]


In February 2021, Synthetix announced a successful fundraising round, securing $12 million in investments from venture capital firms including , Paradigm, and IOSG. [19][4]

Arjun Balaji, Paradigm investment partner  commented:

“We’re excited about supporting the SynthetixDAO as it builds the leading synthetic asset platform. Synthetix has one of the best communities in and we’re glad to be a part of it.”[4]

On March 16, 2023, DWF Labs, an investment firm and market maker, made a $15 million purchase of SNX, Synthetix's native token, with a $5 million further purchase planned. In order to increase Synthetix's trading volume, the perpetual futures product from Synthetix will be incorporated into DWF Labs' trading operation. [15]

Synthetix v3

Synthetix v3 was deployed on and in February 2023 after a thorough audit from Macro, Iosiro, and . [14]

The deployment of V3 does not include any associated markets. Its main purpose is to generate a collateralized debt position that serves as a denominated in dollars, to subsequently be utilized within integrated markets. [14]

The Synthetix v3 also includes (LPs) that can delegate collateral to . LPs can mint sUSD by taking a loan against their collateral, which increases their rewards and the circulation of the native. [14]

Pools accept from LPs and can be configured by the pool owner to collateralize derivative markets. There can be a many-to-many relationship between Pools and Markets, as Pools can back multiple Markets, and Markets can be backed by multiple Pools. [14]

In Synthetix v3, Markets use a combination of price and to create a product offering for end users. They charge fees for doing so and return earnings to Pools. Rewards Distributors are custom rules for additional incentives for Pools or other participants. It allows for customization and flexibility in incentivizing participation within the Synthetix ecosystem. [16]

v3 has the ability to accept SNX into a Pool, mint the newUSD stablecoin (also called snxUSD), and be traded to sETH on the Spot Market due to an agnostic Oracle Manager system. [16]

In July 2023, the protocol integrated the Cross-Chain Interoperability Protocol (CCIP) into Synthetix V3. The initial integration of Chainlink CCIP enables V3 sUSD to move between and but has been configured to allow transfers to any EVM-compatible chain if approved by the Synthetix Spartan council. [22]


Synthetix Perps is a decentralized perpetual trading protocol built on . It is designed to offer users an efficient trading experience with low fees. The platform provides the backend infrastructure that can be easily integrated by any protocol, such as Kwenta, Polynomial, and Decentrex. [17]

To minimize fees, risk, and increase scalability, Synthetix Perps utilizes a novel exchange engine to match traders with off-chain oracles provided by Pyth Network. It offers capital efficiency and leverage on more than 40 assets, allowing traders to use up to 50x leverage on positions. [17]

In August 2023, Synthetix announced the addition of perpetual futures market for leverage trading via Synthetix Perps. [21]

Spartan Council

The Spartan Council (SC) is a governing with 8 members elected for the duration of an epoch by community participants. The SC is responsible for conducting SIP/SCCP (Synthetix Improvement Proposals/Synthetix Configuration Change Proposal) interviews, debating the implications of proposed changes, coordinating protocol changes with the protocol DAO, and hosting periodic community governance meetings in order to represent and protect Synthetix stakeholders. [18]

The SC are paid a stipend by the Synthetix DAO and conduct their duties on the relevant discord governance channels and utilize snapshot’s IPFS signature voting on the staking governance site. Spartan Council members vote on SIP and SCCP. [18]

SCCPs are changes to configurable values of existing , while SIPs describe changes like deploying new smart contracts or meta-governance processes like changes to the governance process. [18]

The Spartan Council members also hold the signing keys for a multi-sig Gnosis safe, which contains the security bonds of all pDAO members. The Spartan Council can slash a pDAO member's security bond if they act maliciously or bypass legitimate governance processes. [18]


Synthetix is composed of a infrastructure and a set of incentives that keep Synth prices. The value of the Synthetix Network Token (SNX) underpins that. SNX acts as collateral; mint Synths require the staking of a proportional value of SNX. Stakers are compensated with a pro-rata share of the fees created by operations inside the program to sustain the program. Therefore, the importance of SNX has a direct correlation to the use of the network it is collateralizing[5].

This mechanism allows Synthetix to support instantaneous, near-frictionless conversion between different Synths flavors without the liquidity and slippage problems that other decentralized exchanges experience. The resulting token network supports a wide range of use cases including trading, loans, transfers, remittances, eCommerce, and more. [5]

Synth Pegging Mechanism

The Synth peg is a system where traders require both liquidity and stability between Synths and other crypto assets to profit from the trading. Some Synths trade in the open market, so they can fall below par with the assets they are monitoring. Incentives are required to ensure minimal deviations from the peg and motivate actors to correct them. There are three methods to maintain the Synth peg, which include Arbitrage, the sETH liquidity pool on Uniswap, and the SNX auction. [1]

Synthetix Tokenomics

Synthetix was initially working on Havven  before pivoting to synthetic assets and their current model. Havven’s supply was 100 million, which converted 1:1 to SNX tokens. However, in 2018 it was decided that tokenomics would be changed. From March 2019 to August 2023, the total SNX supply increased from 100,000,000 to 260,263,816, with a weekly decay rate of 1.25%. After September 2023, there will be an annual 2.5% terminal inflation.[12]

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

Synthetix's was held between Feb. 26 and 28, 2018. The price of Synthetix during the ICO token sale was $0.67 per token and raised $5.3 million. [13]

SNX Token Allocation

The allocation of the SNX token during its Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is as follows:

  • 60.00% was allocated to Token sales and investors
  • 20.00% was allocated to the Team and Advisors
  • 12.00% was allocated to Foundation
  • 5.00% was allocated to partnerships
  • 3.00% was allocated to Bounties and Marketing Incentives [12]


See something wrong? Report to us.



Did you find this article interesting?

Twitter Timeline





Join the IQ Brainlist

Sign up for the IQ Brainlist to get early access to editing on the beta site!

Join Now

Subscribe to our newsletter

Never miss any of the most popular and trending articles on when you sign up to our email newsletter.

Subscribe's vision is to bring blockchain knowledge to the world and knowledge onto the blockchain. A part of Brainfund Group.


What's IQ?StakingBonds


About usCareersBrandingIQ GPTIQ Dashboard

© 2023 Powered By BrainDAO& IQ