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Radix

Radix is a decentralized, layer 1 distributed ledger technology (DLT) that aims to provide a platform for developers to easily create . Radix has been built in an attempt to avoid exploitations and hacks while allowing the integration of with ease. [1]

Overview

Radix is a decentralized ledger designed to support creation, with a focus on use cases. The network uses a consensus algorithm called Cerberus to ensure security while offering linear scalability and also a programming language for Dapp development called Scrypto. Radix features its own execution environment, the Radix Engine, which provides developers with a range of asset-oriented features to expedite DeFi and development. The platform aims to serve as an alternative base layer to for DeFi applications. It also has a native token, XRD, that enables holders to participate in the consensus mechanism and earn rewards. [2][3]

Radix was created in 2017 by , an experienced developer. [4][5]

History

Radix founder discovered in 2012, and in May 2013, he created eMunie, which later became Radix. For the next five years, Hughes worked on developing consensus architectures to solve the issue of scalability. [2]

In 2017, Radix received funding from Taavet, co-founder of TransferWise, and LocalGlobe, a European VC, and the project was renamed Radix with Piers Ridyard joining as CEO. That same year, Hughes invented Cerberus, a consensus algorithm that provides unlimited linear scalability, making it possible for the network to support decentralized applications, especially in decentralized finance. [4]

In 2020, Radix launched Radix Tokens (Jersey) Limited, a token issuer, and holder of the Radix Foundation treasury. [2]

Radix's public mainnet launched in July 2021 after four years of active development and testing since the project's announcement in September 2017. The native XRD token was launched on the network to aid in fundraising efforts. [6]

On December 15, 2021, the project's programming language, Scrypto, was released. [7]

Infrastructure

Radix Engine

Radix Engine is an alternative approach to implementing assets in a platform, where tokens are treated as physical objects held in user-controlled accounts rather than separate entries in balance lists. The platform guarantees correct behavior through a finite state machine model, which makes errors like double accounting and reentrancy impossible. Radix Engine v2 expands on this model to include the computation of logic in an asset-oriented programming language, Scrypto, and introduces the concept of "resources" to handle asset transactions more intuitively. The platform also includes on-network templates of useful functionality called blueprints to further encourage modularity and reusability. The Radix Engine, running on a decentralized network, allows community collaboration and package manager-like functionality directly onto a common network. [8]

Cerberus

Cerberus is a consensus protocol used by Radix to facilitate decentralized DLT consensus. It is named after the three-headed dog in Greek mythology and utilizes a parallelized Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) consensus process. The protocol is innovative and unique in its approach to achieving scalability in to enable mass adoption and serve multiple users. [3]

The Cerberus protocol works by splitting one blockchain network into several constituent parts, known as shards, which run in parallel to one another. Transactions are processed atomically on any of the shards with rules put in place to sequence transactions, merge the history, and avoid confusion. This approach to sharding is different from proposed sharding implementation, which has a limited number of shards. [4][9]

Cerberus also enables scalability through parallelism. Cerberus uses multiple concurrent timelines that only enforce the ordering of related events which allows for safe parallelism of consensus through state sharding, significantly reducing throughput limitations. [9]

The Radix Engine breaks down useful DLT application functionality into components that are functionally independent. These components are modeled as functional, separate entities that can be updated independently. The Radix Engine translates these components into discrete finite state machines, which easily translate into a shardable language Cerberus understands. [9]

Scrypto

Scrypto is a language developed by Radix Engine to complement its application environment. It is based on Rust, but with added specific functions and syntax for Radix Engine v2. Scrypto is an asset-oriented language that allows Rust-style logic to interact with assets as a native, first-class citizen, enabling developers to focus on their own business logic and rely on Radix Engine for the intuitive, safe handling of assets. [8]

Scrypto streamlines the development of through its asset-oriented approach. Developers can create tokens and using a built-in function and store them in a temporary container called a bucket before storing them in a more permanent resource container called a vault. The Radix Engine's smart contract version, called a "component," holds vaults that contain all the resources owned by the component, which can be instantiated from a blueprint and become active for use on the network. With Scrypto, developers can focus on writing essential code and interact directly with tokens, pools, and users, encouraging the creation of next-generation applications. [8]

Blueprint Catalog

The Blueprint Catalog is a platform feature on the Radix network that offers developers a powerful tool for building and contributing to the platform. It enables modular deployment, versioning, and extension of Scrypto Blueprints, which can become de facto standards and encourage interoperability. Additionally, the on-network registry holds pre-built, well-maintained Blueprints for commonly used DeFi functionality. These modular solutions can be easily accessed, combined, and updated, and each Blueprint has a unique address with versioning support. While updating a Blueprint does not automatically update other components using it, developers can choose to adopt new revisions by making their own updates.[8]

Developer Incentivization

Developer Royalty System

Radix DLT introduced the Developer Royalty System, which offers the same kind of market-based incentives as mining, creating a direct developer-to-developer marketplace for useful functionality. It is made possible through the Blueprint Catalog and associated on-network mechanisms for using components to create applications and transactions. Developers can set royalties for each use of a component or blueprint in a transaction. Developers can tailor their royalties to suit the nature of what they build and how they expect it to be used, creating decentralized on-network revenue streams and business models. The system allows for automatic and guaranteed royalty payments on a per-transaction-use basis, and updating royalty pricing is also possible. [8]

Developer's Guide

The Radix protocol provides a decentralized marketplace for Scrypto code, where developers can add Blueprints to the Catalog and set their own per-transaction royalties. The Developer's Guide is a front-end service that presents the contents of the Blueprint Catalog and current instantiated Components, allowing developers to discover and integrate Blueprints into their own development. The Radix Foundation is currently developing the Radix protocol as a fully open-source code base and is committed to supporting developers at all levels.[8]

wiki

XRD

The RADIX token, XRD, is the native token of the Radix Public Network. It has two primary uses: and transaction fees. As the base currency of the Radix Public Network, XRD could also be used by any within the Radix ecosystem. For example, it could be used as collateral in a lending protocol or as an intermediary facilitating exchange between other tokens. [10]

Staking

XRD is a fundamental part of Radix's Delegated (DPoS) system, which uses XRD to secure the Radix Public Network against a type of attack known as a Sybil attack. XRD token holders vote on which validator nodes they would like to participate in consensus by delegating tokens to them. Stakers earn network emission rewards, and the top 100 validator nodes with the most delegated stake are chosen by the Radix Protocol as its validator set. The limit of 100 validators is expected to be removed, allowing for an unlimited number of validators, as part of the Radix Xi’an release. [11]

Transaction Fees

XRD is also used to pay transaction fees on the Radix Public Network, primarily to prevent spam transactions across the network. 100% of all transaction fees are burnt, i.e. the tokens used to pay the fee are destroyed by the Radix Protocol. [11]

Tokenomics

XRD has a maximum supply of 24 billion tokens. At genesis, 12 billion XRD tokens (50%) were issued as follows: [12]

  • 642 million XRD (2.7%) was allocated to members of the Radix Community who purchased XRD tokens at a price of $0.039 in the October 2020 Token Sale.
  • 3,000 million XRD (12.5%) was allocated to early Radix Community members who contributed approximately 3,000 BTC between 2013-2017 to Dan Hughes who initiated the theoretical development of the Radix project.
  • 200 million XRD (0.8%) was allocated to participants of the Liquidity Mining Program that took place between November 2020 to May 2021.
  • 2,400 million XRD (10.0%) was allocated to RDX Works Ltd, which has funded and developed Radix technology since 2017 until the present day.
  • 2,158 million XRD (9.0%) was allocated to Radix Tokens (Jersey) Limited, which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Radix Foundation.
  • 600 million XRD (2.5%) was allocated to Radix Tokens (Jersey) Limited to fund grants to bootstrap the development of dApps and more on Radix.
  • 600 million XRD (2.5%) was allocated to Radix Tokens (Jersey) Limited as a network subsidy.

Of these, 9.6 billion XRD tokens are fully unlocked and circulating, and 2.4 billion XRD tokens are indefinitely locked in the reserve. The remaining 12 billion XRD tokens are minted by the Radix Protocol as network emission over an approximately 40-year period (300 million XRD per year) to serve as an incentive to stakers and validators in securing the network. [12]

wiki

EXRD

is a and token that was launched in November 2020. It represents Radix's utility token XRD in Ethereum's DeFi ecosystem and is swappable for XRD. Its launch was part of a strategy to decentralize the Radix Public Network by distributing tokens widely before staking began under the Delegated system. [20]

Partnerships

ExpoLab

In July 2020, Radix partnered with ExpoLab, a data platform that studies and develops real-time transactional and analytical processing of distributed ledger technology (DLT). The partnership aimed to develop and verify a fast and secure fabric for financial transactions using Radix's platform built for fast and secure large-scale financial transactions on an open, permissionless network. Radix planned to validate the design of their Cerberus DLT consensus protocol with rigorous academic proofs, while ExpoLab could refine its tools and apply its knowledge to a real-world system. [13][14]

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Object Computing and Noether

On August 13, 2020, Radix DLT announced a partnership with Object Computing and Noether DLT to develop an Ethereum-based platform for the Radix ledger. Object Computing provided consultation and custom smart contract development for enterprise customers, support the onboarding of new businesses and decentralized applications into the Radix ecosystem and developed enterprise-centric features for the Radix ledger software. Noether DLT's platform provides an extensible layer for , , and other smart contract systems to run on Radix. The partnership aimed to allow Ethereum DApps to migrate to the Radix ecosystem with minimal effort while providing them with the versatility of Ethereum smart contracts at the speed of Radix. [15]

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Ren

On August 18, 2020, Radix announced its partnership with . The partnership aimed to bring a fully decentralized wrapping solution to Radix through , which allows native assets to be locked and corresponding "wrapped" tokens to be minted on other public ledgers without centralized counterparty risk. The integration of RenVM helps Radix move closer to enabling seamless bridges between the Ethereum and Radix DeFi ecosystems, which will reduce fees and increase liquidity. [16]

"We are thrilled to be starting the work of integrating RenVM into the Radix public network, providing another low-friction bridge into the Radix ecosystem. Today, there are over $250Bn of crypto assets, with most of them locked out of DeFi. Ren’s innovations allow us to start unlocking that value, while retaining the trustless and permissionless nature of the underlying assets. We’re very pleased to be working with them to bring these assets to the Radix ecosystem as well." - Piers Ridyard, CEO of Radix.

wiki

Argent

On August 26, 2020, Radix partnered with Argent, a non-custodial decentralized , to offer a seamless mobile experience for all Radix token holders. Argent's mobile wallet provided Radix token holders with an easy and secure way to hold their tokens, as well as instant access to the DeFi universe, including one-click liquidity deployments to , , and other platforms. Radix's ERC20 token became available on Argent's wallet, making it easier for users to access DeFi applications.[17]

wiki

In October 2020, Radix partnered with to integrate its network into the Radix Public Network. This partnership aimed to provide developers and users of the network access to high-quality, secure, and accurate off-ledger data for creating innovative DeFi products. Radix created a new form of smart contracts called "components," making it easy for DeFi applications to be developed and deployed. Radix integrated Chainlink's widely-used price feeds, which are sybil-resistant, decentralized, and provide high-quality price data from premium off-chain aggregators. The integration started by adding two modules to the Chainlink Node software and creating the native Radix smart contracts needed to make Chainlink data available on Radix. [18]

wiki

GoodFi

On February 11, 2021, Radix announced it has partnered with , , Messari, , and more to launch GoodFi, a non-profit initiative aimed at accelerating the adoption of decentralized finance (DeFi). GoodFi's goal is to get 100 million people to invest at least $1 in DeFi by 2025. [19]

LayerZero

On April 20, 2023, announced its integration with Radix after the Babylon upgrade, enabling seamless cross-chain communication within the Radix ecosystem. LayerZero's messaging protocol connects over 30 blockchains, empowering developers to create interoperable and fostering a unified digital asset ecosystem. This partnership aims to enhance user experience, expand the range of services and assets available to Radix users and developers, and contribute to the growth of a unified ecosystem. [26]

"Our mission is to make crypto accessible to everyday users. With the Radix platform being integrated with LayerZero, it is taking a significant step forward in achieving that goal. This integration will not only enhance the user experience on the Radix public ledger but also showcase the true potential of cross-chain interoperability." - Radix Tokens Jersey Director, Piers Ridyard

Funding

In July 2020, Radix raised $4.1 million in funding from London-based seed-stage VC LocalGlobe and TransferWise co-founder Taavet Hinrikus. With the funding, Radix focused on lowering adoption barriers and increasing on-ledger liquidity, providing a “frictionless access, liquidity, and programmability of any asset in the world.” [24]

In October 2020, Radix raised $12.7 million through a public token sale to support the development, growth, and decentralization of its platform for building and deploying applications. The sale saw participation from 652 contributors across 67 countries, subject to strict KYC/AML requirements and a minimum purchase of $5,000. The funds were aimed at incentivizing participants and ensuring sufficient decentralization of the public network. [22][23]

In March 2023, Radix raised $10 million in funding ahead of the introduction of its Babylon mainnet, which would enable smart contract capability on the Radix network for the first time. The funding round was led by investment firm DWF Labs, which has been investing heavily in the space recently, and gives Radix a valuation of $400 million. One of Radix's main goals is to mitigate the risk of hacks in decentralized finance through its Scrypto smart contract language, which provides developers with a tool for creating assets and setting rules for transactions. The Radix blockchain has over 50 projects building on it, offering trading, saving, lending, gaming, , and wallets. [25]

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