Mantle Network

Mantle Network is an scaling solution that prioritizes compatibility with existing Ethereum contracts and tools. By combining an optimistic with an advanced data availability solution, Mantle Network aims to address Ethereum's scalability challenges while ensuring security. [1][2]


At its core, Mantle Network aims to deliver an efficient and low-fee environment for deploying and experimenting with applications. With their which went live on January 10, 2023, Mantle leverages an optimistic protocol and advanced data availability solution, Mantle Network addresses 's scalability issues. This approach not only enhances security through Ethereum's validated consensus but also offers cheaper and more accessible data availability. [3][4]

Mantle Network's architecture supports Ethereum rollups, leveraging Ethereum's established validator set and consensus protocol for increased security compared to other L1 validator sets. This framework offers advantages like canonical bridging, censorship resistance, and fund recovery options. Operating as a Layer-2 (L2) scalability solution built atop Ethereum, Mantle Network's validator nodes collect and compress transactions into blocks before committing them to Ethereum. This compression minimizes gas fees and increases transaction throughput, providing users with a more efficient experience compared to traditional L1 solutions. [3]

Mainnet Launch

On July 17, 2023, Mantle Network launched its Mainnet Alpha, following six months of extensive testing on the network's Testnet, during which Mantle Network showcased its capabilities:

  • Processed over 14 million on-chain transactions
  • Deployed more than 140,000 smart contracts
  • Engaged with over 48,000 developers
  • Connected to 690,000 unique wallet addresses
  • Maintained a monthly active wallet address count of 157,000+


Ecosystem Building Initiatives

To foster ecosystem growth, Mantle Network introduced two critical initiatives:

  1. Mantle Grants Program: This program supports more than 50 teams in deploying their decentralized applications (dApps) on the mainnet, driving innovation and diversity within the ecosystem.
  2. Mantle EcoFund: With a substantial capital pool of $200 million, the Mantle EcoFund operates as a conventional venture fund, offering matching incentives for Strategic Venture Partners. This initiative passed after a one-week voting period in July, further emphasizing Mantle Network's commitment to ecosystem development.


BitDAO x Mantle Integration

With their mainnet launch, and Mantle Network have merged, laying the groundwork for the Mantle ecosystem. This collaborative effort aims to streamline operations under a unified brand. With the merger, a new proposal under BIP-21 was passed, planning to introduce a new token, MNT, emphasizing the "one brand, one token" principal. This token will serve multiple purposes, including gas fee payments, ecosystem building through grants, , and governance voting. Existing BIT tokens will be converted to MNT before Mantle's mainnet launch. This conversion ensures that existing token holders maintain governance rights within the ecosystem. For staking in the new ecosystem, the ETH allocation within BitDAO's treasury will be used to generate revenue for ecosystem development. [14][15]


The foundational architecture of the Mantle Network comprises several integral components and modules that collaboratively facilitate the network's operations. This section provides a concise overview of these components and network architecture. [5]

Network Structure

The provided diagram shows the interplay of distinct network modules and components, traversing the process of transaction execution. This culminates in the dissemination of updated state data to Ethereum L1, subsequently preserving data within the Mantle Data Availability (DA) mechanism, driven by EigenDA technology. [5]

wikiOptimistic Rollups

Optimistic Rollups (ORs) are a Layer 2 solution aimed at boosting Ethereum's efficiency. By moving computation and state storage off-chain, ORs process transactions in consolidated batches, reducing strain on the Ethereum mainnet. [6]

Key Aspects

  • Off-Chain Scaling Approaches: Unlike other scaling methods like sidechains and plasma chains, ORs gain security from Ethereum's mainnet. They validate transactions off-chain but publish results on-chain.
  • Fraud Proofs for Security: In cases of suspicious transactions, network actors submit fraud proofs. Ethereum's smart contracts then validate the contested transactions, penalizing inaccurate submissions by reducing the Sequencer's stake.

Modular Blockchain

The concept of a Modular Blockchain redefines how transactions are handled for greater efficiency. In contrast to traditional Optimistic Rollups (ORs), which rely heavily on Ethereum for essential functions such as data availability and fraud-proof execution, the Modular Blockchain breaks down fundamental blockchain functions. By breaking down essential functions such as execution, consensus, settlement, and data availability, into distinct layers, the Modular Blockchain optimizes task distribution, leading to cost reductions and improved overall performance. [7]

The modular blockchain also segregates each function with the aim of enhancing resource efficiency. This approach also seeks to promote network efficiency by allowing specialized roles for each layer. Security benefits are extended to all users, not just validator nodes on the primary chain (L1). Moreover, this separation of functions, combined with mechanisms like fraud proofs and Zero-Knowledge (ZK) proofs, lightens the validation load on nodes. [7]

Data Availability

Data Availability (DA) lies at the core of Mantle's Layer 2 rollup, ensuring the accessibility of transaction histories. This fundamental concept addresses a crucial challenge in blockchain scalability – the widespread availability of block data. By thwarting the possibility of block data being concealed, intentionally or otherwise, DA fosters a transparent and trustless environment within the Layer 2 ecosystem. [8]

The foundation of trust minimization is integral to this design. Employing cryptography and rule-based enforcement, Mantle's architecture eliminates the need for excessive reliance on third parties. Ethereum's network, in particular, underscores this principle, where full nodes uphold the entire blockchain history for public scrutiny, enabling verification of state transitions. [8]

An innovative solution to ensure data availability is EigenLayer. This re-staking protocol leverages Ethereum's existing trust network to secure data accessibility. L1 validators can participate by offering data availability services, supported by staked $ETH collateral. Mantle's data availability module, powered by EigenDA technology, further refines this mechanism, enabling efficient and decoupled data exchange. This approach holds the potential to drive high throughput and cost-efficiency in burgeoning blockchain applications, from gaming to decentralized social networks. [8]

Threshold Signature Scheme (TSS)

The Threshold Signature Scheme (TSS) is adopted on Mantle Network's Layer 2 (L2) to enhance security during block data validation. TSS mitigates uncertainty linked to transaction validation challenges within Optimistic Rollups. It employs a distributed key generation and signature system, known as the Threshold Signature Scheme, enabling clients to generate verifiable signatures. This approach enhances security by preventing single points of failure. TSS nodes collaborate to verify and sign block data, safeguarding its accuracy.

TSS involves key generation, signing, and verification phases. Each TSS client generates a private key and a corresponding public key. Subsequently, the private key generates signatures for public inputs, and the signature is verified using the public key. TSS nodes deploy Ethereum stakes as a safeguard against malicious behavior. While TSS nodes will be permissioned by Mantle core contributors, the scheme bolsters state validity checks before Batch Submission, benefiting applications seeking added verification.

TSS nodes consist of TSS Core, TSS Manager, and TSS Nodes. TSS Core implements the TSS protocol, while TSS Manager manages multi-party computation and dispatches signing tasks. TSS Nodes generate private keys and interact through peer-to-peer networks to create signatures. The TSS Manager coordinates signing tasks, ensures state root accuracy, and verifies signatures. TSS nodes are held accountable for active participation, with slashed stakes redistributed among functioning nodes.

Fraud Proofs

In the context of Optimistic Rollups, fraud proofs play a vital role in ensuring the validity of Layer-2 (L2) transactions. Optimistic Rollups assume the correctness of state transitions, referred to as assertions until proven otherwise. Fraud proofs serve as evidence to challenge incorrect assertions during a dispute window, typically around 7 days. Transactions that aren't disputed within this timeframe are considered valid. [9]

There are two types of fraud proofs: non-interactive and interactive. Non-interactive proofs verify assertions independently by examining state transitions. Interactive proofs involve multiple parties, including the claimant and defender, collaborating to verify a single state transition. While non-interactive proofs are simpler, interactive proofs offer greater flexibility. [9]

For Mantle Network's Mainnet Alpha, fraud proofs are under development and not yet enabled. Unlike some models, Mantle Network's approach ensures that fraud proofs are evaluated directly using Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) instructions. This eliminates blind spots and enhances trust minimization across the verification process. Mantle Network's fraud-proof model is similar to that of Specular Network. [9]

$MNT Token

The $MNT token plays a dual role as a and utility token in the Mantle Ecosystem, offering voting rights and practical functionality. Token holders can actively engage in voting, ensuring a decentralized influence on the Mantle Ecosystem's direction. As a utility token, $MNT is employed for gas fees on the Mantle Network and can serve as collateral for network nodes, promoting participation, security, and network stability. Operating as an token, $MNT's advanced features are on L1, while its L2 version functions as a standard bridge-wrapped ERC-20. The distribution of $MNT from the Mantle Treasury aligns with the strict protocols of Mantle Governance, while funds in the Mantle Core Budget are intended for the ongoing development and adoption phases. [11]


Initial Allocation

On July 7, 2023, the initial distribution of $MNT took place, which was determined based on a snapshot from that date and the approval of MIP-23: $MNT Supply Optimization. This distribution encompassed core holdings treasuries for DAO-governed and undistributed $MNT tokens, along with DAO-owned liquidity positions such as MNT:ETH LP pairs. Notably, this allocation excluded Mantle product budget treasuries and Mantle protocol fee-related wallets. [11]

Mantle Treasury Distribution: The distribution of $MNT tokens from the Mantle Treasury adheres to the Mantle Governance process, following a stringent budgeting, capital call, and distribution procedure demonstrated by the BIP-19 Mantle Network Budget. While there have been no formal discussions on macro targets or constraints concerning the distribution of $MNT tokens as of June 2023, certain significant categories are anticipated:

  • User Incentives: A key priority involves stimulating user adoption of Mantle products through diverse strategies such as multi-season achievements, quests, and incentive programs. Metrics like daily active users, total transactions and protocol fees, total value locked (TVL), and other relevant product adoption indicators serve as targets for these incentives, designed to attract and engage users within the Mantle Ecosystem.
  • Technology Partner Incentives: This category is geared towards incentivizing dApps, infrastructure service providers, and core protocol technology partners who contribute to the growth and advancement of the Mantle Ecosystem. By offering incentives to these collaborators, Mantle aims to foster partnerships and collaborations that enrich the overall ecosystem and broaden its capabilities.
  • Core Contributor Team and Advisors: This category adheres to the same budget proposal process, ensuring transparency and accountability in allocating resources to the team and advisors who actively contribute to the project's success.
  • Other Opportunities: This category encompasses potential possibilities that may arise, such as acquisitions, token swaps, treasury sales, and other agreements. Each opportunity will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, considering its potential benefits to the Mantle Ecosystem and alignment with the project's overarching objectives.

wikiCitizens of Mantle

Citizens of Mantle is an inaugural native modular collection that was created in collaboration with internationally-renowned visual artist Chen Man. This collection of avatars is aimed at rewarding active community members, designed to synchronize with the Mantle Journey program, offering additional incentives for engaging with the Mantle community. Currently, the whitelisting process is taking place where users are able to join the whitelist by connecting their wallets to verify eligibility. [13]

Becoming a Citizen of Mantle provides individuals with access to an immersive experience within the Mantle Ecosystem. A Citizen of Mantle NFT avatar serves as a faithful companion on a journey of building, connecting, playing, earning, and trading within the Mantle network. As users achieve milestones within the Mantle Ecosystem, their NFT avatars will evolve, gaining unique traits. These avatars reflect the depth of engagement and accomplishments within the Mantle Ecosystem, unlocking future benefits and opportunities as participants progress. [13]

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